Lincoln University Institutional Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

Lincoln University (LU) Institutional Learning Outcomes (ILOs) express a shared, campus-wide articulation of expectations for all degree recipients. Success in all disciplines taught at Lincoln University requires knowledge, curiosity, imagination, creativity, collaboration, and analytic abilities that serve to extend our understanding of the world. At LU, we strive to develop graduate professionals who are able to handle personal and civic challenges and opportunities. ILOs define the broad areas of knowledge, skills, abilities, and values that graduates are expected to develop as a result of general education, major studies, and co-curricular activities. Graduates of Lincoln University are able to:

Recognize problems, think critically, apply analytical reasoning, and propose solutions (ILO 1). This entails:

  1. For BA/BS students: ability to develop habits and skills necessary for processing information based on intellectual commitment and applying these skills to guide behavior.

  2. For MBA/MS students: ability to recognize and work with the components of reasoning and problem solving; ability to understand concepts, assumptions, purpose, conclusions, implications, consequences, objections from alternative viewpoints, and frame of reference.

  3. For DBA students: ability to incorporate various modes of thinking including scientific, economic, mathematical, historical, anthropological, and moral ones.

Communicate ideas, perspectives and values clearly while respectfully listening to others (ILO 2). This entails:

  1. For BA/BS students: ability to raise important questions and problems and formulating them clearly and precisely in oral or written communication.

  2. For MBA/MS students: ability to gather and assess relevant information, use abstract ideas to interpret the information effectively, develop well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, and test them against relevant criteria and standards.

  3. For DBA students: ability to operate within alternative systems of thought; recognize and assess the needs with related assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and communicate results effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.

Display professional behavior and act responsibly at local, national, and global levels (ILO 3). This entails:

  1. For BA/BS students: ability to act with dignity and follow the principles concerning the quality of life of all people, recognize an obligation to protect fundamental human rights, and respect the diversity of all cultures.

  2. For MBA/MS students: ability to be exemplary business professionals and ensure that the products of their efforts are used in socially responsible ways, will meet social needs, and will avoid harmful effects to health and welfare.

  3. For DBA students: as exemplary business professionals, ability to challenge existing standards to minimize the possibility of indirectly harming others at local, national or international levels; ability to assess the likelihood of physical and social consequences of any developed product's harm to others.

Work collaboratively and respectfully as members of diverse organizational teams (ILO 4). This entails:

  1. For BA/BS students: ability to focus on individual and organizational needs; communicate to co-workers and company's leadership to facilitate a collaborative environment; be honest and transparent with regard to their work and respect the work of others.

  2. For MBA/MS students: ability to lead by example and to create highly collaborative organizational environment; ability to develop and use strategies to lead and encourage employees at all organizational levels.

  3. For DBA students: ability to integrate collaboration into organizational workflows, create a supportive environment for successful teamwork, and lead by example.

Demonstrate leadership skills through the ability to set directions and motivate others (ILO 5). This entails:

  1. For BA/BS students: ability to display sincerity and integrity in all their actions based on reason and moral principles; ability to inspire others by showing mental and spiritual endurance.

  2. For MBA/MS students: ability to set goals and have a vision of the future; as effective leaders, ability to habitually pick priorities stemming from their basic values.

  3. For DBA students: ability to have perseverance to accomplish a goal despite potential obstacles and risk, use sound judgments to make right decisions at a right time, and make appropriate changes in thinking, planning, and methods when achieving organizational goals.

Apply creativity and innovation in their field of study (ILO 6). This entails:

  1. For BA/BS students: ability to show creativity by thinking of new and better goals, ideas, and solutions to problems; ability to become a resourceful problem solvers.

  2. For MBA/MS students: ability to continually seek, develop, and offer new or improved services; ability to use original approaches when dealing with problems in the workplace.

  3. For DBA students: ability to set up realistic goals for the organization, encourage innovative strategies, and convey a clear sense of future direction to employees.

Demonstrate expertise and integration of ideas, methods, theory and practice in a specialized discipline of study (ILO 7). This entails:

  1. For BA/BS students: ability to define and explain the boundaries, divisions, styles and practices of the field; ability to define and properly use the principal terms in the field.

  2. For MBA/MS students: ability to demonstrate fluency in the use of tools, technologies and methods in the field; ability to evaluate, clarify and frame complex questions or challenges using perspectives and knowledge from the business discipline.

  3. For DBA students: ability to formulate and arrange ideas, designs, or techniques and apply them to specific problems; ability to adopt current research, skills, and techniques to issues in the field study.